Female genitalia out of M. fasciculata and you can procedures to have mating plug coupling. (A) Virgin girls genitalia for the front consider. (B) Male genitalia of pre-copula men, approaching the feminine genitalia. (C–E) Genital product, metasomal sterna S-VIII and you will S-IX. (F) Male genitalia undertaking the coupling of the connect: ventral look at vaginal capsule and you can metasomal sternum S-IX projecting from the human body of your own male by the good telescopic path. (G) Male vaginal capsule detached regarding male’s system, having manhood valves triggered, gonostyli up against the alternative standing when considering the initial. (H) Metasomal sterna S-VIII and you may S-IX, in which sternum S-IX takes on the original updates for the male’s gut. (I) Mating connect in more detail, indicating the brand new lateral compressing regarding gonocoxites. (J) The new vaginal chamber regarding an excellent plugged lady: the fresh membranous part that features the newest mating connect attached.
Regarding the non-Melipona types (F
longipes, S. aff. Postica, and P. minima), we seen sturdy knob valves that have intermediary curve and you may a lower life expectancy spatha ( Profile 1)paring the overall morphology out of penis regulators and you may spatha from M. fasciculata to another examined types, i learned that each other Meters. flavolineata and you will M. seminigra provides slim penis regulators having lower curvature. However, Meters. seminigra features less regulators than Meters. flavolineata, and you may a more successful spatha when compared with one other Melipona ( Profile step one).
Breakdown out of hypothesized plugging tips
The last standing regarding mating plugs to the mated ladies matched up the brand new reputation of your own male’s instinct throughout copulation due to “J” course and you may location significantly less than female’s abdomen ( Profile 4C). In most physogastric queens from M. fasciculata, i observed the fresh mating connect connected to the membranous vaginal pouches of the knob valves, to the spatha surface based to the the female ventral piece, placed directly under brand new gonopore ( Shape 3J). We propose that the fresh mating plug process is brought about in the event that men genital product was irreversibly protruded off male’s system, which leads to changed positions of gonostyli, dick regulators, and gonocoxites.
Brand new mating collection of Yards. fasciculata, according to videos listing off mating away from a related kinds. Throughout: (A) male in flight, trying to condition in itself over the lady; (B) organized male, showing pairs omegle promo code from feet fitted across the woman’s system; (C) men enhancing the gut of the women; (D) male making the female just after winning mating, that’s, this new mating plug connection. Throughout parts, men wings try portrayed in order to represent their direction through the mating, predicated on Supplementary Video clips S1 .
Brand new mating pair of Yards. fasciculata, centered on a video listing away from mating regarding a connected kinds. All the way through: (A) male in flight, seeking position alone along side females; (B) positioned male, indicating pairs away from base fitting along the woman’s human anatomy; (C) male increasing the abdomen of the female; (D) men making the female shortly after profitable mating, that’s, the fresh new mating connect accessory. In every bits, male wings is depicted so you can portray the way during the mating, predicated on Secondary Video S1 .
According to research by the evaluation anywhere between sleep county out-of vaginal capsules and you will caused county of mating plugs, their functional morphology, and also in films facts to the mating choices off a directly associated varieties ( Secondary Videos S1 ), we recommend that creating away from mating connect takes place in 5 hypothetical strategies ( Data step 3 and cuatro):
Once immobilizing the feminine human body, a man inserts his metasomal sternum S-VIII beneath the females tergum T-VI, lifting it ( Figure 4C).
Given that women vaginal chamber is unwrapped ( Contour 3A), the male gonostyli matches new woman’s vaginal region. Immediately after placement this new sternum S-VIII, a man metasomal sternum S-IX protrudes out of the male’s looks to your the brand new female’s vaginal chamber as well as the genital capsule, from the good telescopic movement ( Profile 3F). The fresh new insertion out of men genital pill on the ladies vaginal chamber is not with the newest gonostyli, and this move backward within the procedure, remaining away from people vaginal chamber ( Profile 3G).