Toward phased haplotypes regarding chromosomes of queens, we could identify recombination occurrences in the for every drone

Honey bees have very high crossover pricing and you may lowest low-crossover rates

When you look at the for each and every nest, we become mosaic drone chromosomes which have genotype altering from a single haplotype to another of your king (Contour 1B; Contour S2B and Profile S4 when you look at the Even more file 1), which might be caused by COs otherwise gene conversion rates. Shortly after selection such possible non-allelic series alignments, this new genotype switching products have been perceived over the chromosomes to spot brand new CO otherwise gene conversion process incidents. As nearly all myself observed gene conversions various other taxa features system lengths notably less than simply ten kb [8,45], i believe that the fresh spans with >ten kb try an upshot of COs. If covers lower than 10 kb having the same genotype derived from one of several several haplotypes of one’s king is believed so you’re able to end up being the consequence of gene conversions (including crossover-relevant gene sales and you may low-crossover gene conversions), if you are spans >ten kb is believed to be COs, a maximum of 3,505 COs and you can 250 gene transformation events was in fact identified regarding the 43 drones (these are generally the websites away from multiple COs regarding the higher holes, Most file cuatro). Of these 250 gene conversions almost all (221) are not when you look at the distance so you’re able to CO occurrences and imply, i suppose, NCO situations. Provided a great genome away from dimensions 220 Mb (shared duration of come up with chromosomes), that have on average 81.5 COs for each genome, i estimate an excellent CO rates off 37 cM/Mb and you can five to six NCO gene conversions for every drone each meiosis (Dining table step one and Table S4 inside Most file dos). NCO situations into the gap countries could not feel perceived whenever you are CO occurrences when you look at the gap nations the theory is that can often be thought of. Considering a beneficial nine.04% gap from the genome, the true amount of NCOs could be 9.04% highest, that it getting a correction.

I note that relaxing the fresh ten kb presumption into the span to help you determine whether a great recombination region is recognized as gene conversion process or crossover can make little to no differences (Most file 1: Profile S5). 86 and you can , respectively); if we guess gene conversion tracts are to 20 kb the newest comparable quantity care for so you can six.21 in the place of . Ergo the fresh new finding that most recombination situations is actually crossovers and you will NCO gene conversion seems to be rare try robust to the 10 kb expectation. It mostly reflects that rarity from recombination occurrences on the 1 so you can 20 kb variety, sure-enough if the gene transformation was uncommon and you may tracts try quick. Moreover though we’re ‘even more generous’ to gene sales occurrences, increasing the cutoff worth so you’re able to a hundred kb, i get well only ten.3 gene sales each drone and you can 72.5 crossovers for each and every drone. As all of our method will likely be powerful to figuring NCO gene transformation rates, the above figures, hence grab both NCO and you may rare cutting-edge CO relevant gene transformation, is liberal quotes of your NCO gene conversion rate (given limits imposed because of the marker density). An it seems that lowest NCO gene rate of conversion thus appears to be a powerful end.

Whenever we impose an upper restriction getting gene conversion rates of 1 kb then your quantity of gene conversions (each other NCO and you may CO-associated) goes down slightly together with CO speed rises (in order to cuatro

An enthusiastic implicit presumption i make is that the recombination price mentioned inside drones try reflective of that knowledgeable because of the genes sent so you’re able to workers. Once the meiosis occurs before worker/drone specs, a beneficial priori we expect that family genes for the professionals and you may drones so you’re able to have seen an equivalent recombination speed. This can be indeed the fact. We find testing half a dozen professionals out of colony III (Techniques for information) that quantity of crossover events within the for each and every haplotype (82.0 ± 8.6, about listing of 69 interracialpeoplemeet so you’re able to 90; Desk S1 for the Most document dos) isn’t any different from one observed for the drones (two-tailed Brunner-Munzel sample, P = 0.90).

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